Simply Jesus: Part Two(b)

As I said in the last post of this series, I am breaking Part Two of Simply Jesus into posts covering three chapters apiece. This post covers chapters 9-11.

The Kingdom Present and Future

In this chapter, Wright offers four examples, both before and after the time of Jesus, to show how the Jews believed that the kingdom could simultaneously be both present and future. The kingdom was “now” when announced and “still to come” in the sense that there was work to do to bring the kingdom to completion.

The four would-be messiahs or established “kings” that he surveys are, respectively, Judah the Hammer (Judas Maccabeus), Simon the Star (Simon bar-Kochba), Herod the Great, and Simon bar-Giora. All four, while having at least some of the seven themes of the exodus (pp.64-65), had at least two main parts: 1) a great battle to fight and victory to win (themes of wicked tyrant, chosen leader, and victory of God); and 2) to cleanse or rebuild the temple (presence of God). By exploring the history of these characters, it doesn't take much imagination to see why Jews started following Jesus around, wondering if he might actually be the Messiah.

(What is interesting, is that Judah the Hammer and Herod the Great were both “successful” in their endeavors. Yet, neither one had a right to David's throne by way of lineage. Plus, it was obvious to Jews that things were still not quite right.)

Battle and Temple

The battle that Jesus came to fight, was not so much against Rome or corrupt Jewish leaders, but against “the quasi-personal source of evil standing behind both human wickedness and large scale injustice” (p. 120), the satan. Wright explains that when the kingdom of God comes on earth as in heaven, “It's a clash of kingdoms: the satan has his kingdom, God has his, and sooner or later the battle between them will be joined” (p. 125). Jesus initially won the battle by being tempted in the wilderness but would fight the final battle on the cross.

Jesus is indeed fighting what he takes to be the battle against the real enemies of the people of God, but it is not the battle his followers or the wider group of onlookers was expecting him to fight. Jesus has redefined the royal task around his own vision of where the real problem lies. And he has thereby redefined his own vocation, which he takes to be the true vocation of Israel's king: to fight and win the key battle, the battle that will set his people free and establish God's sovereign and saving rule, through his own suffering and death. (p. 126-127)

Jesus' “cleansing of the Temple” would have been similar to Jeremiah's smashing of the pot (Jeremiah 19) and interpreted as God's judgment on the Temple. As we saw earlier, cleansing/restoring the Temple was a royal task for the king to perform, which makes sense of the question that the Jewish leaders asked Jesus: “By what authority are you doing these things?” (e.g., Mt 21:23) This action could only mean that the Temple itself had become obselete:

It looks as though everyone knew that Jesus was in some sense or other pronouncing God's judgment on the Temple itself – and by implication, on the present regime that was running it… [W]hen Jesus stopped the changing of money…and the selling of sacrificial animals, he was effectively stopping the sacrificial system itself, for a brief but symbolic moment. And if you stop the regular flow of sacrifices, you bring the Temple to a shuddering halt. It no longer has a purpose. And if you do that…it can only be because you think Israel's God is now acting in a new way. (pp. 129-130)

Space, Time, and Matter

Chapter 11 has been one of my favorite chapters so far. The sections are “Redefining Where God Dwells” (space), “Time Fulfilled” (time), “A New Creation” (matter), and “A New Kind of Revolution.” I will briefly summarize these sections:

  1. Space – Jesus redefined sacred space around himself as the new Temple, where heaven and earth overlap. “Heaven and earth were being joined up – but no longer in the Temple in Jerusalem. The joining place was visible where the healings were taking place, where the party was going on…, where forgiveness was happening… [T]he joining place…was taking place where Jesus was and in what he was doing. Jesus was…a walking Temple. A living, breathing place-where-Israel's-God-was-living.” (p. 133)
  2. Time – The time of fulfillment, the time to which all of the sabbath days, sabbath years, and years of Jubilee (if Israel ever actually practiced it) were pointing, finds its significance in Jesus' public career.
  3. Matter – The material world was meant to be filled with the glory of YHWH. Not least in Jesus' healing ministry, but also in the Transfiguration (e.g., Mt 17:1-13), it is evident that God is restoring the created order. In other words, “new creation” is breaking into the old one.
  4. Revolution – Jesus' movement had some similarities to other revolutionary movements of that period, but his was still strikingly different. Here we must debunk a few common misperceptions about what Jesus was doing: He was not a) telling people how to “go to heaven,” b) starting a military revolution, or c) simply doing things to “prove” his divinity.

From what I've posted so far, how does this view of Jesus and the message of the gospels differ from the Jesus and gospel you have learned about?

Q & A with Michael Carpenter

When I was a student at Williams Baptist College I met a brother named Michael Carpenter. He is now a graduate of Fuller Theological Seminary, a church planter (along with other WBC alumni) of the Church at Argenta, and will soon be opening Mugs Café, which he hopes will become the “third place” of the Argenta district of Little Rock, AR. What follows is an interview I did with him recently.

Dustin Finch: What is Argenta like and why is it a good place to plant a church? How did you end up there?

Michael Carpenter: The “white flight” to the suburbs of the 1970’s and 80’s left Argenta’s store fronts empty, housing dilapidated, and the area all but forgotten. Churches left for the contrived landscapes of the suburban sprawl and abandoned their buildings. The crime rate increased exponentially as gangs began to occupy the territory once home to a vibrant neighborhood. The old First Baptist Church building became a bar and strip club that served as a front for most of the criminal activity in Argenta. Argenta quickly became the unwanted dog of metro Little Rock.

Fearful and angry residents became weary [of] the many problems that were plaguing their once thriving Argenta Neighborhood – high crime, disinvestment, and abandoned homes.

Yet, the church remained absent. Fear of urban neighborhoods, fear of the “other,” and the love of convenience rather than the Bible, prayer, and meaningful discussions among fellow Christians have driven the church’s perception of neighborhoods like Argenta. Not surprisingly, this perception is largely negative. We have moved our homes and congregations to the fringes of our historic neighborhoods in the city to suburban enclaves. Moreover, we have learned to speak of these neighborhoods as places for rescue missions rather than places to live, work, and play.

DF: What challenges have you faced in Argenta? What victories have you celebrated?

MC: Remarkably, we have been met with considerable favor in the neighborhood. We believe this is due to a group of pastors and denominational leaders who prayed over this area for nearly two years before we arrived on the scene. We have seen lives transformed and a community of faith come together bound by a common commitment to God’s mission in the world.

DF: What is a “third place” and why is it important?

MC: Sociologist Ray Oldenburg coined the phrase “third place” in his 1989 book The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. The subtitle says it all.

According to Oldenburg, the first place is our home and the people with whom we live. The second place is where we work and the place we spend most of our waking hours. A third place is a public setting that hosts regular, voluntary, and informal gatherings of people.

The third place is a living room, but not in someone’s house; a workplace, but not in someone’s office. The third place is embodied by the modern coffee house. At their core, third places are where people feel at home. They feel like they belong there.

Third places have always been an important way in which the community has developed and retained a sense of identity.

How so? One of the most important aspects of any city is its collective commons: the shared public spaces where people gather…be they streets, squares, parks, markets, playgrounds, or coffee shops.

Yet, even in the heart of a city in neighborhoods like Argenta, isolation is a word that describes the kind of lives many people are living today. More and more people are spending less and less time with one another. People no longer give time to civic participation, religious involvement, and neighborhood relationships. More often than not people spend much of their time alone.

The deterioration of social connections in our neighborhoods should drive followers of Jesus to action. God created us as relational beings. God designed us to be in a deep, abiding relationship with him. But we also understand that we are also to be in life giving relationships with one another. The idea of people sitting at home, dying relationally from the lack of basic human connections should inspire us to bring about change.

Therefore, the church needs to be at the forefront of enhancing opportunities for a richer, fuller life. Our motivation should flow out [of] the desire to see those who are relationally starved be drawn to a life-giving relationship not only with others, but ultimately with the giver of life Himself – Jesus Christ.

In addition, we need to recognize that people who are far from Jesus are not interested in church activities. The church, as the missionary people of God, must realize that we must engage people on common ground – third places.

It’s so easy for us to withdraw to the comfortable confines of our Christian sub-culture. But that is not the example Jesus set. He crossed every conceivable demographic and line. Think of it this way: Jesus did not hang out at synagogues. Jesus hung out at wells. Wells were more than just a place to draw water. Wells were natural gathering places in ancient culture. Jesus didn’t expect people to come to him. He crossed cultural boundaries and went to them. So, instead of building a traditional church building where people gather once a week, we are digging a well where people gather all day every day.

DF: What can your church do when Mugs opens that it can’t do now?

MC: Connect and build relationships with more people for the sake of the gospel. We are limited as individuals as to the number of people we can meet and develop lasting relationships with. Also, Mugs provides for us a financial stream that will allow us to do church for free. That is, the coffee shop will pay for our building and staff which frees us up to give more to mission.

DF: How important are hospitality and sharing meals to the mission of the Church at Argenta? Why?

MC: In today’s culture, the church needs to recover the conviction that table fellowship is essential to the Christian life. In the book, I Was a Stranger: A Christian Theology of Hospitality, Arthur Sutherland writes, “Hospitality is the practice by which the church stands or falls.” Sutherland suggests that hospitality makes the Church, so much so that the Church disappears without it. He argues that the Church, as Christ’s body in the world, comes to life through hospitality; that it lives and flourishes when it participates in, imitates, and extends the table fellowship of God, but withers when it neglects it.

Far from being a gospel option, the sharing of our table is an essential practice of the Christian life and the responsibility of all. Our faith in Christ ensures that there will always be a home for each of us in the presence of God giving us freedom to follow Jesus’ example as he models for us the profound power of sharing a table with tax collectors, sinners, Pharisees, and prostitutes. Surely this kind of hospitality is the locus of missional activity.

Willingness to practice the radical table fellowship of Christ is the beginning of spiritual vitality. In common acts like sharing a simple meal, we can begin to see others as uniquely fashioned creations of God with names and stories. And these encounters just might teach us more about God and his Kingdom than all the Sunday school classes we have attended. Just as the two disciples who were traveling home to Emmaus did by inviting an unknown man to stay with them who happened to be Jesus himself.

DF: You have had a coffee shop before, called Java Joe's in Lebanon, TN. What did you learn from that experience and what will you do differently this time?

MC: One doesn’t learn much about running a business in seminary. We made a lot of mistakes when it came to our day-to-day operations. However, good business practice alone will not by itself point people to Jesus. For that to happen we must be more intentional.

As a business we are committed to being an incarnational presence in our community and to encouraging those we do business with “to act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with God” (Micah 6:8). To achieve this we must create a world of more conscious workers, citizens, and consumers. We are committed to creating a world that is rich in the values demonstrated in the life of Christ (Luke 22:24-27).

We believe that our business should engage in the spiritual growth of everyone who works for us. In other words, we will create a discipling culture among us by meeting God daily in a set time of prayer, allowing God [to] confront us daily through the Scriptures, and participate in God’s mission in the world by ever remembering the command, “Love one another as I have loved you” (John 13:34).

We are committed to approaching everything we do from a systems perspective, a perspective that allows us to see the larger whole, not a fragmented, compartmentalized world, not just what we want to see, our own point of view, our own reality, but a world that is endlessly interconnected. (For more on systems thinking click here.)

DF: The first-century church spread throughout the Roman Empire in less than a century without buildings or professional clergy. Your church is also (currently) without a building. How does your neighborhood know about your church without your having a building or a sign? In other words, how does Argenta know of your church's presence?

MC: One word: relationships. For relationship is the means by which the gospel travels.

DF: What does it mean to be incarnational? (or) What is incarnational ministry?

MC: If God’s central way of reaching the world was to incarnate himself in Jesus, then our way of reaching the world should likewise be incarnational. At the very least, an incarnational lifestyle requires us to set up a real and abiding presence in a particular place with the basic motive of revelation–that is, people will come to know God through Jesus. By becoming one of us, God has given us the archetypal model of what true mission should look like and behave.

DF: What is the best way that churches or individuals can partner with the Church at Argenta and Mugs? How can people pray for you? How can they keep up with what the church is doing?

MC: The best way for churches to partner with us right now is through financial giving (see equip.churchargenta.org). This is our greatest need at the moment in order to get Mugs open. Our biggest prayer is that we will not fold in on ourselves and keep following the Spirit outward. People can keep up with us on Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/churchargenta), Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/churchargenta), our blog (http://www.churchatargenta.org/blog), and our newsletter (http://www.churchatargenta.org/about/newsletter/).

DF: What is the first thing we need to order once Mugs opens?

MC: The first thing you need to order is the Wayfaring Slider for breakfast, the Smoked Salmon Club for lunch, and the Cuban to drink. http://www.mugscafe.org/menu/

 

What God Thinks About Death

Whether it is a mass murder of children several states away, a friend of a friend, or a close relative, death is all around us. Death is often unexpected and tragic. We could have a natural tendency to ask: “Where is God in all of this?” “If he is so good, why doesn't he intervene?” “Does he even care?”

Origins of Life and Death

The Adam and Eve story has God breathing the “breath of life” into Adam (Gen 2:7). He was also free to eat, as much as he wanted, from all the trees in the garden, including the tree of life. He was told, however, not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, or else he would die. (Gen 2:15-17)

One day, Adam's wife, Eve, was having a conversation with the serpent about God's withholding this privilege of knowledge from his people. She and Adam both ate, and…well you know the rest… (Genesis 3) God then banished them from the garden so that they could not eat from the tree of life and live forever in their broken condition. (Gen 3:22-24) The very next story is about their oldest son murdering the younger (Gen 4:1-16) and Genesis 5 repeats the refrain then he died… With Enoch and Elijah as exceptions, this pattern of life being swallowed up by death is repeated throughout the Old Testament, indeed throughout human history… (Rom 5:12-21)

It would be easy to wonder why God is so callous, so cold, so disinterested in our pain, suffering, grieving. To see what God thinks about death, we need to look to Jesus, the one who reveals God most fully. (cf., Jn 1:18; Col 1:15-20) With his being God in flesh (cf., Jn 1:1-2, 14), Jesus is the source, the author of life. (Acts 3:15-16; cf., Jn 1:4-5) Indeed, he is divine, eternal, uncreated life. (cf., Jn 14:6; 1 Jn 1:1-3)

Jesus and Lazarus

Jesus has a friend named Lazarus who becomes sick and dies. (Jn 11:1-16) Jesus goes to see him and when he arrives in Bethany, Lazarus' hometown, he learns that Lazarus has been in the tomb for four days. Lazarus' sister Martha says to Jesus, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother wouldn't have died…” Jesus explains that Lazarus will rise again, but she thinks he is talking about the resurrection in the distant future, on the “last day.” Jesus says: “I AM (ego eimi; Gk. Ἐγώ εἰμι) the resurrection and the life…” Martha is in the presence of the resurrection and the source of life. (Jn 11:17-27)

Martha tells her sister Mary that Jesus has arrived, and she gets up, runs to him, falls at his feet and says, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died!” Jesus is “angry in his spirit” and goes to the tomb where he weeps or (the Greek is stronger) bursts into tears. Some standing there note that Jesus must have really loved Lazarus to be so deeply moved; others wonder why Jesus could not have prevented the death in the first place. (Jn 11:28-37)

Jesus, foreshadowing his own resurrection from the dead, requests that those standing there remove the stone that covers the tomb. Martha tries to dissuade him, saying that Lazarus was starting to stink. Jesus is not deterred and calls Lazarus out of the tomb. Lazarus comes out as a live man wrapped in burial cloths. (Jn 11:38-44)

What God Thinks About Death

So what does God think about death? Jesus was angry in his spirit and burst into tears in the presence of death. (Jn 11:33-35) Death is God's enemy. (1 Cor 15:26) Death will be ultimately destroyed. (Rev 20:13-15) There will be a resurrection (1 Corinthians 15), a new creation (Is 65:17; Rev 21:1-8), and the reappearance of the tree of life. (Rev 22:1-3) That's what God thinks about death.

For those who are hurting right now, let me leave you with a Philip Yancey quote from Finding God in Unexpected Places:

We need a renewed awareness of death, yes. But we need far more. We need a faith, in the midst of our groaning, that death is not the last word, but the next to last. What is mortal will be swallowed up by life. One day all whispers of death will fall silent. (18)